Appendix B: The Western Monotheistic Tradition

Timeline of Religious Sects in the Western Monotheistic Tradition

This is by no means a complete list, but is intended to give an impression of the overall growth of religion from the earliest evidence of goddess worship to modern conceptions. The list is admittedly Euro-centric up to the 17th century and U.S.-centric after that. The number is based on a my own hypothetical outline of the generic evolution of what might be called the "center branch" of the family tree of western religion. The names in italics can be described as philosophies based on either Platonic or Enlightenment-styled rationalism, or modern secularism, rather than religious sects based on faith or dogma. Some are not easy to categorize, as some of these italicized groups can be accussed of ritualism, such as the Epicurean Atomists and Freemasons, yet are clearly more on the side of free thought and individualism than those categorized as a religion. Some references like "Greek Pagan" and "Roman Pagan" connotate many different religious cults fused into a single pantheon. Deities and unhistorical Biblical characters are listed in single quotations. Double quotations are used for names that are given by a third party, for example, from later archaeologists as in "Venus" carver, or from contemporary sects, such as the historically unconfirmed title "Ba'al-Zebub" or the so-called "Monophysite heresy". Gods and religions with the ¤ symbol are Amorite-influenced storm gods, called Ba'als, in the tradition of Hadad, Marduk, and Zeus. Gods and religions with the † symbol are associated with the death of a fertility god at the Winter Solstice followed by his resurrection on Easter in the tradition of Dumuzi, Tammuz, and Dionysus. Religions anf belief systems with the ‡ symbol uses language and iconography of crucifixion or martyrdom, either of their founder or the individual, in order to praise stoic determination, but denies the divinty of their founder. Adjacent names in parentheses are equatable deities or heroes from a different sect.

Midian (Sinai)
Religious Sect King/Ruler Representative Location
Homo erectus carver two figurines (800,000-233,000 ya.)Israel; Africa
Aboriginal Australian Hunter-gatherer tradition (70,000-40,000 ya.)Australia
1. "Venus" carver "Venus" figurines (27,000-12,000 B.C.)Europe, Middle East, Asia
Natufian skull decoration (10,500?-8200 B.C.) Jericho (lit. 'Moon')
Yarmukian idols of bearded heads (8500-4300 B.C.) Syria, Palestine
Neolithic Anatolian'Cybele'(?), many goddesses, some gods (6700s)Chatal Hyuk (Turkey)
Shakti HinduMahamaya goddess (5500-2600 B.C.) Indus Valley
2. SumerianAlulim (5300-3400 B.C.?), Gilgamesh (2625 B.C.?)Adapa (Adam) (5300-3400 B.C.?), Ziusudra (Noah), 'Enki', 'An', 'Nanna'/'Suen', 'Inanna', 'Dumuzi'† (2900 B.C.?)Eridu, Uruk, Ur (S. Iraq)
Ghassulians Ein Gedi Temple (3800-3350 B.C.) Ein Gedi (Israel), Syria, Palestine
Heliocentrist Nakshatra Darshas (3200 B.C.), Yajnavalkya (700s-800s B.C.) India
Egyptian The Scorpion King 'Min', 'Set' (3100 B.C.) Egypt
3. AkkadianJugar (2900 B.C.?), Sargon (2334 B.C.)Enheduana (1st author),
'Enlil', 'Inanna/Ishtar', 'Dumuzi'/'Tammuz'† (2271 B.C.)
Kish, Nippur, Akkad (N. Iraq)
Minoan 'King Minos' goddess, bull worship ('Min'?) (2700-1450 B.C.) Crete
4. Hurrian 'Abraham' (Ur), 'Haran', 'Nahor'moon god (Suen?), 'Teshub'¤ (2500 B.C.) Huran (Turkey)
Canaanite 'El the Bull' ('Anu'/'Enlil'), 'Dagon' (Enki?), 'Asherah' (Inanna), 'Tammuz'†, 'Baal-Hadad'¤, (2500 B.C.)Israel, Lebanon, Syria
'Ennead' 'Atum-Ra' ('Aten') (2400 B.C.) Heliopolis (Egypt)
'Ptah' Triad 'Ptah-Sekhmet-Nefertem' (2345 B.C.) Memphis (Egypt)
4. Neo-SumerianUr-Nammu 'Nanna'/'Suen' (moon god) (2112-2004 B.C.)Ur (Abraham's home in Iraq)
AssyrianShamshi-Adad I (1831)Gilgamesh, 'Ba'al Asshur'¤ (2000 B.C.) Ashur, Shubat-Enlil (N. Iraq)
Mayan 'Gukumatz' ('Quetzalcoatl') (1800 B.C.?)S. Mexico
'Ogdoad' 'Thoth' ('Hermes') (1800 B.C.?) Hermopolis (Egypt)
'Chunm' Triad 'Chunm-Satet-Anuket' (1800 B.C.?) Elaphantine (Egypt)
Babylonian Hammurabi Gilgamesh, 'Ba'al Marduk'¤, 'Tammuz†, Ishtar' (1763 B.C.) Babylon (Iraq)
Hittite Pithana 'Teshub'¤ ('Zeus'), 'Asherdu' ('Asherah'), '1000 gods' (1750 B.C.) Turkey
JebusiteMelchi-Zedek'Zedek' (El Elyon?; 'Zeus'?; "Zadok"?) (1600s B.C.?) Jerusalem
New Kingdom TriadAhmose'Amun-Mut-Chons' (1570 B.C.)Thebes (Egypt)
Vedic Hindu 'Indra', 'Soma', 'Agni', 'Varuna', 'Mithra' (1500s)India
5. Sphinx TriadKing Tuthmoses (1390s)'Atum-Horus-Akhet'; Khafra? (2500s)Heliopolis, Giza Plataeu
5. On Priesthood Unnamed pharaohJoseph (Yuya?) (1390 B.C.?) Heliopolis (Egypt)
Chemosh Worship MeshaJoseph, Solomon, 'Chemosh/Moloch'¤, 'Ishtar' (1300s) Beth-Baal-Me'On ("Shrine to God of On"), Moab (Jordan)
Shasu Bedouin 'Yahweh' (Egyptian lion-god Bes), 'Asherah'Qadeš (Sinai)
6. Aten WorshipAkhenaten Akhenaten, Ramose (1350 B.C.) Heliopolis, Amarna (Egypt)
7. Midianite Priesthood 'Yahweh' (volcano god), Moses
Dionysius Worship† 'Dionysus'/'Bacchus', Cybele (1200s B.C.) Crete?, Greece, Rome
Philistine "Ba'al-Zebub"¤ ('Ba'al-Zebul'?), 'Dagon','Astarte' (Inanna/"Ashtoreth") (1180 B.C.) Palestine (S. Israel)
Cybele Worship Kubaba the Barmaid(?) of Kish (Iraq, 2400 B.C.) 'Kubaba' (Cybele?), 'Dionsius'† (Attis) (1000s B.C.)Iraq?, Carchemish, Phyrgia, Greece, Rome
Edomite 'Esau', Herod 'Kaus'¤ (1000s?-700s? B.C.) S. Israel
Melqart PriesthoodHiram I? (969-936 B.C.?)'Melqart' (Gilgamesh?) (2750 B.C.?)Tyre
8. Ba'al-Yahweh PriesthoodDavid, Isaiah'Ba'al-Yahweh'¤, 'Asherah' (900s B.C.)Jerusalem
Omri PriesthoodJeroboam (I/II)'El the Bull' (golden calf) (930 B.C.?)Bethel, Dan (Israel)
Levite Priesthood 'Yahweh', MosesBethel (Israel), Moab
9. El-Yahweh Priesthood Elijah ("El is Yah"), Elisha (850s B.C.)Jordan, Israel
10. Zadokite Priesthood (J) King JoashJehoiada (800s B.C.)Jerusalem (Judah)
11. Shiloh Priesthood (E) 'Joshua'Eli, Samuel (Moses) (800s B.C.)Shiloh (S. Israel)
12. Leviticus Reform (P) HezekiahAaron, Phineas, Ezekiel (Monotheist Reform: 715 B.C.)Jerusalem
Canaanite Reform¤ Manasseh (687 B.C.)(Polytheist Reform)Judah
13. Deuteronomy Reform (D)Josiah ("Joshua") Hilkiah, Jeremiah (Monotheist Reform: 628 B.C.) Jerusalem, Shiloh
ArmenianOrontid 'Amun-Ra' (612-400 B.C.) Armenia
Greek Pagan 'Zeus'¤, Homer (700s-800s B.C.), Hesiod (700 B.C.?) Greece
Athenian DemocratSolon (594 B.C.), Cleisthenes (508 B.C.)Athens (Greece)
Zoroastrian King Vishtaspa(?)Zarathustra ('Mithra', 1700?, 588 B.C.?)Iran, India
Greek Humanist Thales of Miletos (582), Xenophanes of Colophon (500s)Greece
JainKing SardathaMahavira (557-507 B.C.?)India
Orphic† 'Dionysus', Orpheus, Anaxagoras (550s B.C.?)Greece, Macedonia
Pythagorean‡ Orpheus, Pythagoras (550s B.C.?) Samos, Ionia, Italy
Zurvanist Zoroastrian Zarathustra (500s-300s B.C.?) Iran, India
Roman Republican Lucius Brutus, Collantius (509 B.C.?) Rome
Confucionist Confucious (479 B.C.) China
Sophist Anaxagoras, Protagoras (470s B.C.?)Athens, Ionia, Thrace
14. Second Temple ReformArtaxerxes II Ezra (Aaronid priest; 459 B.C.) Jerusalem
14. Samaritan Priesthood Moses Gerizim (400-500s B.C.), Schechem (N. Israel)
BuddhistSuddhodanaSiddhartha Guatama (400s-500s B.C.?)India
Atomist Democritus (400's B.C.?) Thrace (Greece/Bulgaria)
Socratic Socrates (450 B.C.?) Athens (Greece)
Roman Pagan (Greek Syncrentism) 'Apollo' (430s), 'Jupiter', 'Juno'Rome
Cynic Socrates, Antisthenes, Diogenes (399 B.C.) Athens
Platonist‡ Socrates, Plato (385 B.C.) Athens
Aristotlian Plato, Aristotle (335 B.C.) Athens
Epicurean Democritus, Epicurus (307 B.C.)Athens
Stoic‡ Antisthenes, Zeno (301 B.C.) Athens
Tao 'Jade Emperor', Laozi (600-300? B.C.)China
Vodun (Voodoo) 'Mawu', 'Nana Baluku' (4000 B.C.-300 B.C.)West Africa
Magna Mater Worship 'Cybele/Magna Mater' (200s B.C.) Rome
15. Hasidean‡ Judas Maccabee(?) Onias III (175 B.C.) Jerusalem
Sadducee Priesthood Simon Maccabee (153 B.C.), John HyrcanusJerusalem
PhariseeQueen Alexandra (76 B.C.)Zaddok (141 B.C.), Simon ben Shetach (76 B.C.) Jerusalem
Mithraic Zoroastrianist 'Mithras' (100s B.C.?), ConstantineIran, Roman Empire
16. Essene Jew‡Teacher of Righteousness (160-70 B.C.)Qumran, Damascus (S. Syria)
16. Nazarene Jew‡ (Toldoth) Yeshu ben Panthera (76-67 B.C.?)Egypt, Upper Galilee, Jerusalem
16. Gnostic Nasaraean‡ Yeshu ha-Notzri (76-67 B.C.)Gilead, Basham, Transjordan; Syria
16. Oniad Jew‡ Onias III(?), Honi the Circle-Drawer (67-63 B.C.?)Jerusalem
Samaritan Gnostic Simon the Magus (70 B.C.)Caeserea (Samaria), Egypt
Herodian Herod the GreatHerod (42 B.C.)Rome, Idumea, Galilee, Judea
Proto-Rabbinic Jew Hillel (30 B.C.) Babylon, Jerusalem
Divus Augustus WorshipEmperor AugustusJulius Caesar (44 B.C.), Caesar Augustus (27 B.C)Roman Empire
Messianic Zealot‡ Judas of Galilee (6 A.D.) Southern Syria
17. Essene Nazarite‡ John the Baptist (20) Southern Syria
18. Hellenistic Jew Philo (20) Alexandria (Egypt)
Therapeutae (healing monks mentioned by Philo; Honi? Buddha?) Greece, Alexandria
Rabbinic Jew Yohanan Zakkai (70)Jamnea (Western Judea)
19. Jewish Cynic‡ (Q-1, Mark-1) 'Jesus,' 'Paul' (70s) Galilee, Alexandria (Egypt), Rome,
20. Jewish Apocalypticist (Q-2) 'Jesus,' James, John (70s, 130s) Galilee, Judea
21. Adoptionist‡ (Mark-2) Philip the Evangelist (100s?), Theodotus of Byzantium (192)Cyrene, Alexandria, Caeserea
21. Cerinthian‡ (John-1) Cerinthus (100) Alexandria (Egypt), Turkey
21. Nicolaitan‡ Nicolas of Antioch (100)Ephesus (Turkey)
Nazoraean‡ (Nazarene) ("Hebrew" Matthew?)'Jesus the Nazirite' (1-100 A.D.)?
Hermetic Hermes Trismegestus (Thoth) (100s)Alexandria
Ophite Gnostic† Snake from Garden of Eden (100s) Syria, Egypt
Naassene Ophite† Snake from Garden of Eden (100s) Syria?, Egypt?
Sethian Ophite† 'Seth, son of Adam' (B.C.?-100s A.D.)Syria?, Egypt?
Barborite Sethian† 'Barbelo' (100s) Syria?, Egypt?
Mandaean Ophite John the Baptist (100s) S. Iraq, W. Iran
Cainite† Judas "the twin" Thomas (100s) Syria?, Egypt?
Syrian Gnostic‡ Saturninus (120-140) Syria
Egyptian Gnostic‡ Basilides (120-140) Alexandria
Carpocratan‡ Carpocrates (120-140) Alexandria, Kefalonia (W. Greece)
Antinous Worship† Emperor Hadrian'Melqart', 'Bacchus', 'Osiris', Antinous (130)Bithynia, Mantineia, Athens, Antinoplis
21. Montanist† (Paul-1) Montanus (130s-170s?), Tertullian (207) Pepuza (Turkey)
22. Marcionite Chrestian† (Luke-1, Paul-2) 'Paul,' Cedro, Marcion (143) Sinope (Turkey)
22. Valentinan† (John-2) 'Paul,' Valentinius (Trinity?, 143)Alexandria, Rome
22. Marcosian Valentinian† (Secret Mark) 'Paul,' Valentinus, Marcus Western Roman Empire
Ebionite‡ James the Just (100-150s?), John the PillarJerusalem, Antioch
23. Galilean Christian† (Matthew, Paul-3) 'Peter' (50), Simon (100s) Galilee, Caesarea Philippi, Antioch (S. Syria)
24. Presbyter† (John-3) John the Elder (90s-150s)Ephesus (Turkey)
25. Proto-Orthodox† (John-3) Justin Martyr (140-160), TatianRome, Syria
Encratite† (John-3) Tatian (160) Syria
Alogi‡ (Anti-Logos sect 170s) Turkey
Ptolemic Geocentrist Ptolemy (after 83-161 A.D.)Alexandria
26. Apostolic† (John3, Paul4) Polycarp, Irenaeus (177), Pope Victor I, Tertullian (197)Rome, Lyons (France)
Quartodecimanist† Polycarp, Polycrates (189-199)Ephesus (Turkey)
Tertullianist† Tertullian ('Trinity'; 1st Latin Christian; 210-220?)Carthage (Africa)
Manichaean Gnostic‡ Turan Shah Mani (230) Babylon (Iraq), Iran
Neo-Platonist Ammonius Saccus, Plotinus (Plato) (270) Alexandria, Rome
Armenian Apostolic† King Tiridates III St. Gergory the Illuminator (301)Armenia
Donatists† Donatus (313) Carthage (Africa)
27. Orthodox† Emperor Constantine Athanasius (325)Alexandria, Constantinople, Nicene
Arian† Emperor Constantine Arius (336) Alexandria, Constantinople
28.Catholic† (Eusebian) Emperor GratianIgnatius of Antioch (110), St. Cyril of Jerusalem (347)Constantinople, Nicene, Jerusalem
Apollinarist† ("Monophysite") Apollinaris (362, 381) Laodocea, Syria
29. Catholic Reform†Emperor TheodosiusSt. Ambrose (380), St. Augustine of Hippo (391) Rome, Alexandria, Hippo (Africa)
Assyrian Orthodox† Nestorius (431)Constantinople
Oriental Orthodox† St. Cyril (431) Alexandria
30. Greek Orthodox† Emperor Marcian St. Pope Leo I, St. Juvenal of Jerusalem (451) Rome, Jerusalem, Constantinople
Eutychianist† ("Monophysite") Eutyches (431, 451) Constantinople
Theosophic Pseudo-Dionysus the Areopagite (430-500)
Celtic Christian† King Aidan, Artur (Arthur?)St. Columba (560)Ireland, Scotland
Merovingian Christian† missionaries inc. St. Columbanus (600s)France
Sunni Muslim Muhammed (613) Mecca, Medina (Arabia)
Shi'ite Muslim‡ Ali ibn Abi Talib (656) Kufa (Iraq)
Paulican‡ Mani, Constantine-Silvanus (660)Armenia
Ismaili Shi'ite‡ Muhammed ibn Ismail (746) Arabia
Karaite Jew Anan ben David (770) Baghdad (Iraq)
Norseman 'Odin', 'Thor', 'Freya', 'Baldur'† (793)Scandenavia, N. Germany
Holy Roman EmpireCharlemagnePope Leo III (800)France, Germany, Italy
Sabian 'Hermes Trismegestus' (830)Subar (N. Iraq)
Zaidi Shi'ite‡ Zaidiyyah (864) N. Iran, Yemen
Fatimid Ismaili Ubaydallah Al-Mahdi (909)E. Algeria, Cairo (Egypt)
Bogomilist‡ (Adoptionist) Mani, Bogumil (927-969)Bulgaria
Alawi Ismaili‡ Hasan al Askari, Al-Khasibi (969)Syria
Russian Orthodox†Vladamir the GreatAndrew the Apostle, Patriarch of Constantinople (988)Kievan Rus' (Northwest Russia)
Druze (Gnostic Ismaili) al-Hakim (Plato) (996)Cairo (Egypt)
Apache'Killer-of-Enemies', 'Child-of-the-Water' (1000)Arizona, Texas, Mexico
Inuit 'Sedna' (1000) W. Alaska
Scientific Method Ibn al-Haytham (1015)Basra (Iraq)
31. Roman Catholic† Pope Leo IX (1054) Rome
Sufi Muslim Ali, Al-Ghazali (Plato) (1091) Bazra (Iraq)
Nizari Fatimid‡ an-Nizar Fatimid (1094)Cairo (Egypt)
Beguine/Beghard Christian† feminine mysticism (1100s) Netherlands
Knight Templar† King Baldwin II Huyues de Payens (1119)Rome, France, Jerusalem
Knight Hospitaller†King Baldwin II Gerard Thom (1119)Rome, France, Jerusalem
Cathar† (Gnostic Christian) 1st Record: 1143; Council of Saint-Félix: 1167; Last Cathar: 1321Languedoc (France)
Ghibelline† ("Imperial Party")Emperor Frederick ILords of Hohenstaufen, agriculturalists (1160)Germany, Italy
(Black) Guelph† ("Church Party")Pope Alexander IIIDukes of Bavaria (Welf), Lombard League, mercantiles (1167)Germany, Italy
Waldensian† (Proto-Protestant) Peter Waldo (1177) Lyons (France)
Bretheren of the Free Spirit† ascetic Christian mysticism (1200s)Northern Europe
Inca Manco Cápac (1230? 1107?)'Viracocha' Peru, Chile
Aztec 'Quetzalcoatl' ('Gukumatz'; Venus) (1248) Mexico
White Guelph†(anti-Pope Boniface VIII)Alighiero de Bellincione (Dante Alighieri's father), Dante (1300)Florence (Italy)
Italian MonarchistEmperor Henry VIIDante (Aristotle) (1308)Florence (Italy)
Renaissance Humanist Petrarch (1341), Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1486), Desiderius Erasmus (1524)Florence (Italy)
Lollard† (Proto-Protestant) John Wycliffe (1376) England
Moravian† (Proto-Protestant) Jan Hus (1412) Bohemia (Czech Republic), Germany
Anabaptist† Petr Chelcický (1420)Bohemia
Navajo Apache 'Holy Supreme Wind' (1500s)Arizona, New Mexico
Louisiana Voodoo (1500s) New Orleans (Louisiana)
Copernican Heliocentrist Nicolaus Copernicus (1514, 1543)Poland
Lutheran† Prince Friedrich III Martin Luther (1521) Germany
Christian Communist St. Thomas More (1516), Thomas Müntzer (1524), Gerrard Winstanley (1649) England
Mennonite Anabaptist† (Swiss Brethren) Menno Simons (1525) Zurich (Switzerland)
Hutterite Anabaptist† Jacob Hutter (1520s) South Tirol (N. Italy/Austria), Moravia (Czech Republic)
Unitarian Cellarius (1527), Servetus (1532) Germany, France
Anglican† King Henry XIII Thomas Cramner (1533)England
Calvinist† John Calvin (1541) France, Geneva (Switzerland)
Scientific Revolution Copernicus (1543), Ibn al-Haytham, Francis BaconEurope
Western Esoteric OccultistQueen ElizabethJohn Dee ("007"; 1555) England
Presbyterian† Calvin, John Knox (1560) Scotland
Pantheist Giordano Bruno (Hermes Trismegistus) (1581); Baruch Spinoza (1656), Albert Einstein (1929)Italy; Portugal
Congregationalist† Robert Browne (1582) England, U.S.
Psychologist Rudolf Goeckel (1590), Sigmund Freud (1898) Germany
Protestant Monarchist†King James I James I (1597; KJV: 1611)England, Scotland, Ireland
Rosicrucian 'Hermes' (1407?, 1607?) Germany, England
Deist Herbert of Cherbury (1624) England, Netherlands
RationalistRené Descartes (1637), Spinoza, Gottfried LeibnizEurope
Baptist Roger Williams, John Clarke (1639) Rhode Island
Epicurean AtomistPierre Gassendi (1647), Thomas JeffersonFrance
Quaker George Fox (1648) England
British Republican CommonwealthOliver Cromwell (1653)Henry Ireton, John Lambert, John Milton (1667)England
Cherokee 'Great Spirit' (Language: 1800-1500 B.C.; Contact: 1654 A.D.)N. Carolina, Tennessee
Tory (Court Party)Charles I, IIroyalists (1678) Britain
Classical MechanicsSir Isaac Newton (1687), LeibnizEngland, Germany
Classic Liberal John Locke (1689), Charles de Secondat (1748), Adam Smith (1776), Thomas Paine (1776)England, France, Scotland
Amish Mennonite† Jacob Amman (1693) Switzerland, Pennsylvania
Shaker†5 French prophets (1706), Mother Ann Lee (1747), James WardleyManchester (England), New York
Freemason Anthony Sayer (1717), George WashingtonEngland, Scotland, U.S.
Methodist† Arminius, John Wesley (Calvin) (1729) Oxford (England)
Hasidic JewIsrael ben Eliezer (1740) Germany, Poland, Russia
Wahabbi Shi'ite‡ Muhammed Ibn Abdul Wahhab (1744) Arabia
Swedenborgian†Emanuel Swedenborg (1758), William Blake, Ralph Waldo EmersonSweden, England
Historical Jesus (1st Quest) Hermann Samuel Reimarus (Deist; 1760), Jefferson (1820), Ferdinand Christian Baur (1826), David Friedrich Strauss (1835), Bruno Bauer (1839), Albert Schweitzer (1906), Rudolf Bultmann (1921)Tubingen School (Germany), Germany, U.S.
Atheist Baron d'Holbach (1761) France, Netherlands
Anglo-American Conservative Edmund Burke (Whig) (1770) Ireland, Britain
American Revolution George Washington, Jefferson, James Madison, Benjamin Franklin (1776)U.S.
Industrial Revolution James Watt (1st improved steam engines: 1776), FranklinScotland, England
Neo-Druid Henry Hurle (1781) London
Whig (Country Party) Charles James Fox (1784) Britain
Feminist Olympe de Gouges (1791), Mary WollenstonecraftFrance, Britain
Age of Enlightenment Paine (1791-92), Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, David Hume, Immanuel KantEngland, France, Scotland, Germany
Anarchist Communist Sylvain Maréchal (1796), Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1840), Joseph Déjacque (1857)France, England
Romantic William Wordsworth & Samuel Coleridge (1798), Blake, Percy & Mary Shelley (daughter of Wollenstonecraft)Britain
Democratic-Republican Jefferson (1792), Andrew Jackson (1829)Virginia, Washington
(Old/Right) Hegelian Georg Hegel (1807), Bauer (studied under Hegel)Germany
British Conservative ("Tory") William Pitt, Jr. (Whig) (1812) Britain
Reform Jew ("heresy") Leopold Zunz (1815) Germany
Young (Left) Hegelian (1st Quest) Stauss (1835), Bauer (1839), Ludwig Feuerbach (1841), Karl Marx, Friedrich EngelsPrussia
Socialist Robert Owen (1817), Pierre Leroux (1834), Marie Roch Louis ReybaudEngland, France
Mormon† Joseph Smith, Jr. (1830) Utah, Missouri
Transcendentalist† Kant, Emerson (1836)U.S.
British Liberal (Whig) Earl John Russell (1839) Britian
Baha'i Baha'u'llah (1844) Tehran (Iran)
Conservative Jew ("heresy") Zecharias Frankel (1845)Bohemia, Germany
Marxist Marx (Jan. 1846), Engels Prussia, Brussels (Belgium)
(World) Evangelical Alliance† (Aug. 1846); Roy Cattell (England 1951), J. Elwin Wright (U.S. 1951)England, U.S.
Collectivist AnarchistMikhail Bakunin (1848)Russia, France, Sicily, Europe
Neo-Orthodox Jew Samson Raphael Hirsch (1851)Germany
Theory of Natural Selection Charles Darwin (1851), Thomas HuxleyEngland
Second Adventist† William Miller (1860) Salem (Massachusettes)
American Confederate Jefferson Davis (1861) Alabama
Republican (Grand Old Party)Abraham Lincoln (1861) Washington
Seventh Day Adventist† Ellen White (1863) Michigan, Maryland
Klu Klux Klansman†Confederate veterans (1866), George Gordon, D. W. Griffith (1915)Pulaski (Tennessee)
Anarcho-Syndicalist Giuseppe Fanelli (1868) Spain, Italy
Agnostic Huxley (1869), Robert G. Ingersoll, Bertrand RussellEngland, U.S.
Theosophic Society H. P. Blavatsky (1875), G.R.S. Mead (1892) New York City
Fundamentalist Christian† James H. Brookes (1876), Milton and Lyman Steward (1910)Princeton (New Jersey), Missouri, Canada
Graf-Wellhausen Documentary Hypothesis (JEDP) St. Jerome (395), Thomas Hobbes (1651), H. B. Witter (1710s), J. G. Eichorn, W. M. L. de Wette, Jean Astruc (1753), Hermann Hupfeld (1853), Eduard Ross, Karl Graf, Julius Wellhausen (1878), Frank Moore Cross (1997)Germany, California, Israel
Golden Dawn Woodman, Westcott, Mathers (1887)England
Bolshevik MarxistVladimir Lenin (1922)Lenin (1893), Leon Trotsky (1896), Joseph Stalin (1904)Soviet Russia
Revised Documentary Hypothesis (JEPD) August Dillmann (1897), Richard Friedman (1987), Moshe Weinfeld (2004)
Zionist Theodor Herzl (Aug. 1897) Basel (Switzerland)
British Labour PartyThomas R. Steels (1899) Britain
Pentacostal† ("Neo-Montanist") Charles Fox Parham (Jan. 1901) Topeka (Kansas)
American Socialist PartyEugene V. Debs (July 1901), Jack LondonU.S.
Ordo Templi Orientis Aleister Crowley (1904) England
Theory of Relativity Albert Einstein (June 1905) Germany, Switzerland
Bolshevik-Leninist ("Trotskyite") Trotsky (Nov. 1905; exile: 1927)Soviet Russia
Marxist-Leninist ("Stalinist")StalinStalin (1906; Lenin & Trotsky break from him: 1924)Soviet Russia
Germanische Glaubens-Gemeinschaft
(German Neo-Pagan)
Ludwig Fahrenkrog (1907) Germany
American Progressive PartyTheodore Roosevelt (1912), Robert M. La Follette (1924)U.S.
Iglesia ni Cristo† (Aztec Catholic) Felix Manalo (1914); 'Santa Muerte' (St. Death; 1950s)Philipines
Thule Society (German Occultist) Rudolf von Sebottendorf (1918) Germany
National SocialistAdolf Hitler (1934) Anton Drexler (German Worker's Party: 1919), Dietrich Eckart (Thule)Germany
Positive Christian†Nazi Protestants (1920), Alfred Rosenberg (1930), Jakob Wilhelm Hauer (1933)Germany
Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia†Tikhon, Patriarch of Moscow (1922; Reunified 2007)Serbia
Nation of Islam (African-American Islamic "heresy")Wallace Fard Muhammad (1930), Elijah Muhammad, Malcom X, Louis Farrakhan (1978)Detroit (Michigan)
Jehovah's Witness† Charles Taze Russell (1870s), Joseph Rutherford (1931)Pennsylvania
Bolshevik Russian Orthodox† Stalin Sergius I (1943)Moscow
Hippie* (Beat Movement; "New Left")Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs (1944), Neal Cassady; Timothy Leary (1967)New York, San Francisco, Woodstock (1969)
Biblical ArchaeologistWilliam F. Albright (March 1948), G. Ernst Wright, Cross (1953), David Noel Freedman, Israel Finkelstein (1988)U.S., Israel
Israeli Zionist Zvi Berenson (May 1948), Chaim WeizmannIsrael
Scientologist L. Ron Hubbard (1952) New Jersey
New Historical Jesus (2nd Quest)Ernst Käsemann (1953), Günther Bornkamm (1960), James M. Robinson, Bultmann schoolGermany, U.S.
Wiccan Gerald Gardner (1954) England
American Nazi PartyGeorge Lincoln Rockwell (Mar. 1959)Virginia
Ethiopian Orthodox† 'Enoch', Abuna Baslios (May 1959)Ethiopia
Second Vatican Council† Pope John XXIII (1962) Vatican City
American Atheist Madalyn Murray O'Hair (June 1963), Frank R. ZindlerAustin (Texas)
African-American Civil Rights Movement‡Martin Luther King Jr. (March on Washington: Aug. 1963)Washington, Mississippi
"Neoconservative"Leo Strauss (1959), Irving Kristol (1965), Paul Wolfowitz (1972), Ronald Reagan (1981), William Kristol (1997)U.S.
LaVeyan Satanist Anton Szandor LaVey (1966) San Francisco (California)
Hare Krishna (Gaudiya Vaishnava Hindu)A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (1966) ('Krishna'; Chaitanya Mahaprabhu: 1500s)New York City, India
American Independent PartyBill & Eileen Shearer (July 1967), George C. WallaceCalifornia
Church of All Worlds* (American Neo-Pagan)Timothy Zell (aka "Oberan Zell-Ravenheart") (1967)Missouri, Ohio, California
Reconstructionist Jew ("heresy")Mordecai Kaplan (Conservative Jew) (1968) Wyncote, Pennsylvania
Jew for Jesus Moishe Rosen (Baptist Minister) (1969)California
Society of St. Pius X† (Traditionalist Catholic)French Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre (1970; excomm. 1975) Switzerland
Libertarian* David Nolan (1971) California, Flordia, Manhatten, Chicago, Austria
Asatru (Norse Neo-Pagan) Sveinbjörn Beinteinsson (1972) Iceland
Jewish Jesus (3rd Quest)David Bivin (1972), Raymond E. Brown (1973), James Dunn (1980), Robert Eisenman (1984), David Flusser (1988)U.S., Jerusalem School (Israel), Israel
Green Rudi Dutschke, Heinrich Böll, Petra Kelly (1979)Germany
Apocalyptic Jesus (3rd Quest)Reimarus (1778), David Friedrich Strauss (1835), Schweitzer (1911), E.P. Sanders (1983), N. T. Wright (1992), Gerd Lüdemann (1995), Bart Ehrman (1999), Paula Fredriksen (2000)Germany, U.S.
Jesus Seminar (3rd Quest) Robert Funk & John Dominic Crossan (1985), Marcus BorgCalifornia
Cynic Jesus (3rd Quest)Burton Mack (1988), Crossan (1993), Funk (1997) California
British Liberal DemocratDavid Steel, Roy Jenkins (1988)Britain
Washington Consensus ("Neoliberal") John Williamson (1989)Washington
American Reform PartyRoss Perot (Feb. 1992)U.S.
Mythical Jesus (4th Quest?)Constantin-François Chassebœuf (1790s), Bauer (1840), Zindler (2003)France, Germany, U.S.
Russian True Orthodox (Josephite) Hieromonk John (1996), Archimandrite Stefan, Patriarch DymytriyRussia
100 B.C. Jesus (4th Quest?)Mead (1903), G.A. Wells (1998), Alvar Ellegard (1999)England, Sweden

*Both Oberan Zell-Ravenheart's Church of All Worlds (American Neo-Pagan) and David Nolan's formation of the Libertarian Party were heavily influenced by the science fiction writings of Robert A. Heinlein. Zell-Ravenheart's concept was based on the modernistic religion of Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land (1961), a book that is also credited with popularizing the notion of polyamory, or 'free love,' within the hippie counter-culture.