Mythology as History

† Dying and Rising God ¤ Sun God * Nation-State Storm God (Bel/Ba'al)
>> Transition of state power ==> Movement of person or idea or flight of a group of people
Colors in 1st half: Blue: Sumerian; Red: East Semitic; Purple: West Semitic; Dark Blue: Neo-Sumerian; Brown: Assyrian; Pink: Babylonian
Gray Italic with Question Mark (?): Speculative
Bold Underline: Shows how godly lineages in Mesopotamian myth correlate to the primary gods of the previous historical time periods
Underline or Italic: Shows a correlation to another nearby underlined or italicized word
Numbered Cultures: Shows repetitive cycle of imperial power moving down the Euphrates from 1. Canaan to 2. Assyria to 3. Babylonia to 4. Sumer
CultureSymbolPrimary DeityTemple / PoliticsKingDateLocationBible Name
The Age of the Venus Goddess
The Babylonian Enuma Elish, dated to the 1100s B.C., promulgated this Family Tree:
Tiamat & Apsu ==> Lahmu & Lahamu ==> An-shar & Ki-shar ==> Anu ==> Enlil, Ea ==> *Bel Marduk (lit. Amar-Utu)
Old WorldFaceless Mother "Venus"
27,000sAfrica, Asia, Europe Venus=East Star (Easter)
Hassuna LionessLion Lady
6400s Jericho >> Assyria Asherah (Inanna / Ishtar)
Halafian?Serpent (of Eden) Nammu (Tiamat)
5900s Anatolia? >> Assyria tehom (Tiamat; Ocean deep in Gen. 1:2)
The Age of the Wise City God
Ubaid (Proto-Sumerian) Fish (Harappan?) Enki (Ea, Apsu) Enki's Temple in Eridu is called
E-abzu, "House of the abyss"
Alulim (=Hurrian Alalu?), Apkallu priests 5300sAssyria >> Eridu Enoch, son of Cain
Serpent (Lamia? =Lilith?) Lulal, Son of †Dumuzi (Lahmu =Beth-Lehem? =†Adonis?) †Dumuzi's Temple in Bad-Tibira; Lahmu is Enki's serpent gatekeeper Dumuzi the Shepherd (†Dumuzi's sister is a wine goddess) 3000s Eridu >> Bad-Tibira ("Fortress of Smiths") Tubal-Cain ("Bringer of Smiths"), Noah (Creator of wine)
The Flood Sweeps Over
The Age of the Amurru Sky Father God (Heroic Age)
The Neo-Sumerian king Shulgi, who reigned around 2000 B.C., promulgated this Family Tree:
Nammu ==> An & Ki ==> Enki, Enlil ==> Nanna-Suen ==> ¤Utu, Inanna (who marries Enki's son Dumuzi)
1. Proto-Amorite Empire? Eagle-headed staff Zababa (=Anzu)(An-shar & Ki-shar?) Zababa's temple in Kish; Anzu is Enlil's temple griffon-guardian Etana the Shepherd (Eagle-rider) 2700s Kish Etana Myth: Serpent brood eaten by Eagle; ¤Utu hides Serpent in Bull to beat Eagle; Etana saves Eagle
Bull, Lioness An, Inanna An and Inanna's temples in Uruk Gilgamesh, Enkidu (=Dumuzi the Fisherman) 2500s Kish >> Uruk Qumran's Book of Giants has Gilgamesh and Humbaba
The Age of the Akkadian Air and Time God
3. Akkadian EmpireBull, Lioness Enlil, Ishtar (=Inanna) Ishtar's temple in Agade; Both temples in Nippur Sargon 2200s Uruk III >> Agade Nimrod (=Sargon)
4. Neo-Sumerian EmpireCrescent Moon Nanna-Suen Nanna-Suen's temple in UrUr-Nammu 2000s Lagash, Uruk_V >> Ur_III Terah, Abraham
¤Sun, Lioness ¤Utu, Inanna ¤Utu's temple:Larsa
Inanna's temple:Uruk
Shulgi, son of Ur-Nammu2000s Elam >> Ur_III Ur_III Allies: Larsa, Uruk
The Age of the Amorite ¤Sun God
1. Amorite Invasions (Old Canaanite)*Ninurta v. Anzu (Griffon-man v. griffon) Enlil, ¤Shamash, *Ninurta, Gula (*Ninurta's wife) Gula's temple in Isin; ¤Shamash's main temples in Sippar and Larsa Ishbi-Irra, Gungunum 1900s Ur III >> Isin,Larsa Og, Magog; Enlil's son *Ninurta hunts Anzu
2. Old Assyrian Empire Winged ¤Sun disc ¤Shamash, *Ninurta, Ashur Suen-Shamash's temple in Assur Shamshi-Adad1800s Assur Ishtar and ¤Shamash's temples in Ninevah
3. Old Babylonian Empire *Ninurta v. Asag demon *Ninurta, ¤Marduk (lit. Amar-Utu) *Ninurta temples in Nippur, Lagash, Babylon, Assyria Hammurabi 1700s Larsa, Ashur >> Babylon Amraphel (=Hammurabi)
Kassite Empire Winged ¤Sun disc ¤Shamash ¤Shamash's temples also in Nippur, Ur, Babylon Agum II 1500s Babylon Myth of Adapa (=Adam)
The Age of the Canaanite *Storm God
The An ==> Enki, Enlil ==> Nanna-Suen ==> ¤Shamash lineage has a similar family tree to later *Storm god myths:
El the Bull (Enlil), Dagon (Enki) ==> *†Ba'al Hadad in the Canaanite Ba'al Cycle (1300s B.C.),
Alalu ==> Anu ==> Kumarbi (Enlil) ==> *Teshub in Hurrian/Hittite Kingship in Heaven (1300s B.C.), and
Uranus (Anu) ==> Chronos (Enlil) ==> *Zeus in Hesiod's Theogony (700 B.C.)
Hurrian EmpireCrescent Moon, Bull Suen, Teshub Suen's temple in Ur, Harran Hittite King Mursili_I takes Marduk idol 1500s Babylon >> Hatti >> Mitanni Abraham of Ur, Haran (=Harran)
1. Canaanite Empire *Storm god v. Dragon & Death El the Bull, *†Ba'al Hadad (Adad) *†Ba'al Hadad's temple in Aleppo (Syria) 1400s Ugarit (Syria) Canaan, son of Ham
Hittite Empire *Storm god v. Dragon & Pazuzu Anu, *Teshub *Teshub's temple in Hattusa Tudhaliya I 1300s Babylon, Hatti >> Hattusa Son of Canaan
Egyptian Empire ¤Sun disc ¤Amun-Ra ¤Amun's temple in Thebes Amenhotep III 1300s Thebes Mizraim, son of Ham
Atenist ¤Sun disc ¤Aten-Ra ¤Atum's temple in Heliopolis Akhenaten, son of Amenhotep III 1300s Thebes >> Amarna Joseph, priest of Heliopolis (=Yuya)
Midianite Volcano (=Mt. Sinai) Yahweh (=volcano god) Volcanoes in Arabia and Yemen Ramose (=Moses) 1300s Arabia, Sinai Jethro
Shasu Lion-man Yahweh Picture of "Yahweh of Yemen" (as Bes) and Asherah found in Sinai stopover station 1200s Moab (S. Transjordan) Asherah is Yahweh's wife (1200s-750s)
2. Middle Assyrian Empire Radiating disc *Bel Ashur (=*Ninurta) Ashur, Anu-Adad's temples in Assur Tukulti-Ninurta I takes Marduk idol 1200s Hatti, Babylon >> Assur Assur, Kar-Tukulti-Ninurta
Middle Elamite Empire Roundel Khumban (Anu) Kutir-Nahhunte takes Marduk idol to Susiana;
Prophecy of Marduk: Marduk goes to Hatti, Assyria, Elam
1100s Babylon >> Susiana Elam, oldest son of Shem
3. Middle Babylonian Empire *Storm god v. Tiamat Nebuchadnezzar I returns *Marduk idol to Babylon from Elam;
Enuma Elish: *Marduk is now a storm god & head of the pantheon
1100s Babylon Merodach
(Jer. 50:2)
Proto-Israelite? None (Iconoclastic) Yahweh? Conservative (Canaanite terrace farmers?) 1100s Israel, Transjordan Judges era
Judean *Storm god v. Dragon (Leviathan) *Yahweh of Armies (Psalms, Isaiah) Hierarchist David 900sMoab >> Jerusalem David's son: Beeliada ("Ba'al knows")
The Age of the Israelite Golden Calves (Early Axial Age)
1. Phoenician Empire (Neo-Canaanite) *Storm god v. Dragon *Ba'al Melqart (Hercules), Bes Hierarchist Jezebel 800s Tyre, Sidon Asherah
Omri Empire (Samaritan) *Storm god v. Dragon *Ba'al Zebul (Zebub=Zababa?) Hierarchist Omri, Ahab 800s Samaria Asherah
Transjordanian? Fire Yahweh (as El) Conservative Elijah ("El is Yah[weh]") 800s Transjordan Tishbite
Israelite (P) Bull (Golden Calf) El the Bull Hierarchist Jehu, Jeroboam "II" (=Aaron, Jeroboam I) 800s Samaria >> Shechem Golden Calves at Beth-El and Dan
Zadokite (J) Ark of the Covenant Yahweh Hierarchist Jehoram (=Solomon) 800s Jerusalem J era
Levite (E, D) Law (Iconoclastic) Yahweh-Our-Elohim Conservative Samuel, Abiathar 700s Shiloh ==> Jerusalem E era
2.Neo-Assyrian Empire *Storm god v. Tiamat *Bel Ashur Hierarchist Shalmaneser V (Hezekiah era) 700s Israel >> Nimrud P era (Fall of Israel)
3.Chaldean Empire (Neo-Babylonian) *Storm god v. Tiamat *Bel Marduk Hierarchist Nebuchanezzar (Josiah era) 500s Nimrud,Judah >> Babylon D era (Babylonian Exile)
Zoroastrian (Persian Empire) Winged ¤Sun disc, Fire Ahura Mazda Hierarchist Cyrus the Messiah 400s Babylon >> Pasargadae Zoroastrian Magi = Wise Men
Jew Torah Yahweh-Elohim Hierarchist Ezra 400s Jerusalem Torah compiled
The Age of Greek Philosophy (Late Axial Age)
Delian League (Athenian Empire) Griffon *Zeus (Anzu, Pazuzu) Liberal Pericles 400s Athens Athens Temple: Hephaestus & Athena
Platonist (Macedonian Empire) Eagle *Zeus Hierarchist Socrates >> Plato >> Aristotle >> Alexander 300s Athens, Pasargadae >> Macedon Enochian literature compiled
Cynic Dog Nature Radical Socrates >> Antisthenes
300s Athens >> Macedon Staff,cloak,sack (Pseudo-Diogenes, Peregrinus 24, Mark 6:8-9)
Epicurean Venus Agnostic Liberal Epicurus 200sAthens"Unknown God" (Acts 17:23)
Hasmonian MenorahAdonai Hierarchist Alexander Jannaeus100sAntioch >> JerusalemMaccabees, Sadducees
Pharisee Tanakh Adonai Conservative Salome Alexandra (wife of Jannaeus) 100s Jerusalem Old Testament
Essene Apocalyptic Messiah Adonai Radical †Teacher of Righteousness (=Honi III) 100s Qumran Daniel, Q2, M Sources
Nazarene Stone of Jacob Yahweh Radical †Yeshu (=Honi the Circle Drawer) 0s B.C. Galilee Toledot, Talmud
Roman Empire Eagle *Jupiter Hierarchist Pompey, Caesar 0s B.C. Jerusalem >> Rome Herod
Zealot Dagger Adonai Hierarchist Judas of Galilee (=Judas Iscariot/Sicarii) 0s B.C. Galilee ==> Jerusalem Simon the Zealot
Stoic Tau Cross Theos Radical †Nero 0s A.D. Alexandria, Antioch, Rome Q1, L Sources, Sermon on the Mount
The Apostolic Age (Rome vs. Anatolia)
Docetic Chrestian (Marcionite) New Covenant †Chrestos ("Righteous One") Radical Hadrian (and †Antinous) 100s A.D. Turkey ==> Rome Marcion
Adoptionist Fish †Jesus (Apollo, Kybele) Radical Antoninus Pius 100s A.D. Alexandria ==> Turkey Peregrinus (=Paul), Mark, Cerinthus, Montanus
Carpocratian (Nicolatian) Crown †Jesus Liberal Antoninus Pius 100s A.D. Alexandria ==> Cephalonia (Ionia Islands) Matthew
Gnostic (Valentinian) Coptic Cross †Savior Liberal Hadrian, †Antinous 100s Alexandria ==> TurkeyThomas, Valentinus
Ebionite Pillar †Jesus Conservative Antoninus Pius 100s Jerusalem ==> Antioch James, Matthew
Peterine Christian Gospel †Christos Conservative Antoninus Pius 100s Antioch ==> Ephesus Peter
Presbyter Logos †Lord Conservative Marcus Aurelius 100s Ephesus ==> Lyon Luke, John
Apostolic Canon †Trinity Hierarchist Commodus 100s Lyon ==> Rome Irenaeus, Tertullian
Orthodox Chi-Ro †Trinity
(=¤Sol Invictus)
Hierarchist Constantine 300s Rome >> Istanbul Anathasius
Arian Chi-Ro †Son of Theos
(=¤Sol Invictus)
Hierarchist Constantine 300s Rome >> Istanbul Arius
Catholic Cross †Trinity Conservative Honorius 400s Istanbul >> Rome Augustine
Greek Orthodox Patriarchal Cross †Trinity Conservative Marcian 400s Rome, Jerusalem, Istanbul Pope Leo I, Juvenal
The Middle Ages (Rome vs. Germany)
Goth / Hun Tau Cross †Son of Theos Hierarchist Theodoric / Atilla 400s Rome >> Germany "Arian"
Islamic Koran (Iconoclastic) Allah (=Elohim) Hierarchist Muhammed 600s Mecca, Medina Ishmael
Holy Roman Empire Quarternion Eagle †Trinity Hierarchist Charlemagne 900s Germany, France, Italy Dante (1300s)
Roman Catholic Rosary †Trinity & Holy Mother Church Hierarchist Pope Leo IX 1000s Rome Crusader (1100s)
Protestant Printer Press Bible (Iconoclastic) †God Conservative Martin Luther 1500s Germany King James Version